|(26.25)||A. Czarist officials|
||F. Orthodox clergy
|(51.5)||A. Volga Germans, Kalmyks, and Chechens
||(1)||B. Greeks, Koreans, and Chechens
||(11.75)||C. Volga Germans, Chechens, and White Russians
||(13)||D. Kalmyks, Crimean Tatars, and Don Cossacks
||(10.75)||E. Crimean Tatars, Ukrainians, and Buryat Mongols
||(12)||F. Volga Germans, Jews, and Koreans
|(28.5)||A. The weather conditions in 1920-21 were actually favorable.|
|(5.75)||B. Lenin reversed his agricultural policies once starvation appeared to threaten the survival of the Soviet regime.|
|(0.75)||C. Substantial stockpiles of grain held by the Whites were captured in 1920.|
|(7)||D. Seed grain as well as food for family consumption was requisitioned from peasants as a punitive measure.|
|(28.75)||E. Both A and D, but not C.|
|(29.25)||F. B, C, and D, but not A.|
||(20.5)||E. under 3%.
||(9.5)||F. under 1%.
|(42.5)||A. Deporting "counter-revolutionary" nationalities to Siberia.|
|(4)||B. Executing other socialists.|
|(25.25)||C. Ordering the assassination or execution of other high-ranking Communists.
||(8.5)||D. Ordering the secret police to use political prisoners as slave laborers on dangerous construction projects.
||(9)||E. A and C.
||(10.75)||F. B and C.
|(43.5)||A. A wartime expedient, requiring unneeded workers to join the Red Army.|
|(6)||B. Never implemented, but would have required "counter-revolutionaries" to contribute at least 20 hours of labor each week to the war effort.|
|(16.25)||C. Argued to be integral to the very concept of a centrally planned economy.|
|(7.5)||D. Substantially implemented by the war's end, for inflation had almost totally eroded the monetary value of the ruble.|
|(2.25)||E. Explicitly stated to be inconsistent with a workers' right to choose his occupation.|
|(24.5)||F. C, D, and E.|
|(40)||A. Imposing the death penalty for retreat.|
|(4.25)||B. Purging the Red Army of former Czarist officers.|
|(2)||C. Executing prisoners of war.|
|(2.25)||D. Ordering pogroms against Jewish communities to silence complaints that he favored other Jews.|
|(19)||E. A and C.
||(32.5)||F. A, B, C, and D.
|(38.5)||A. Only a few thousand village leaders - almost all of the "kulak" fatalities actually occurred during the Ukrainian famine following the dekulakization campaign.|
|(2.5)||B. 100,000 - about as many Japanese who died from the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.|
|(5.5)||C. 250,000 - about equal to the number of Gypsies exterminated by Hitler.|
|(11.75)||D. 1.5 million - about as many as the Turks killed in the Armenian holocaust.|
|(13)||E. 2 million - about as many as killed by Pol Pot in Cambodia.|
|(28.75)||F. 6.5 million - somewhat more than the number of Jews murdered by Hitler.|
|(41)||A. The grain quotas for the Ukraine and Cossack regions were set abnormally high, even for relatively infertile zones.|
|(3.75)||B. Authorities were ordered to move seed grain to secure urban granaries in autumn of 1932.|
|(6.75)||C. The Ukraine was internally blockaded, so that food in nearby Russia could not be brought in, and Ukrainian peasants could not go out.|
|(2.75)||D. Secret police chief Menzhinsky was executed - and replaced with the anti-Ukrainian Yagoda - after protesting against Stalin's policies towards the Ukraine.|
|(19.5)||E. A, B, and C.
||(26.25)||F. A, B, C, and D.
|(50.5)||A. was deadly because it forced migratory nomads to abandon their traditional way of life, without adequately preparing them to do anything else.
||(5.5)||B. concentrated on crushing the Islamic faith.
||(2.75)||C. was a response to perceived pro-German sentiment among Kazakhs.
||(10)||D. was, like the Ukrainian famine, deliberately inflicted.
||(1)||E. provoked only token violent resistance.
||(30.25)||F. A, D, and E.
|(1.75)||B. About 300.|
|(4.75)||C. About 500.|
||(27.5)||E. All but 115.
||(6.75)||F. All of them.
|(54.25)||A. Poland and Germany.|
|(9)||B. Germany, Italy, and Japan.|
|(6.75)||C. Poland and Korea.
||(13)||D. The Baltic nations, Finland, and Romania.
||(7.5)||E. Poland, Germany, and Spain.
||(9.5)||F. Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Greece.
|(46.25)||A. Stabilized, with the incoming waves of deported kulaks approximately equaling the annual attrition rate.|
|(11)||B. Stabilized at around 10,000,000 in 1940, after over 1 million Poles were sentenced to the camps.
||(2.75)||C. Did not increase significantly until the Great Terror, when the camp population doubled in size.
||(3.25)||D. Grew sharply as a result of delukization, then slowly declined in spite of the Great Terror.
||(20)||E. Never stabilized - reaching 20,000,000 by the end of World War II, and 25,000,000 by Stalin's death.
||(16.75)||F. Declined to 1 million during World War II - as prisoners were given amnesties if they joined the Red Army - only to peak again at 3 million in 1948.
|(86.75)||A. The deadliest of the slave labor camps in Siberia, where over 2 million perished.
||(1.5)||B. The treatment received by purged Party members, totally ostracized by their former friends and family.
||(7)||C. The canal built between the Baltic and the White Seas, constructed by slave laborers under conditions of extreme hardship.
||(3.75)||D. The NKVD's solitary confinement cells in Moscow, which were completely unheated.
||(0.5)||E. Stalin, by one of his revolutionary aliases.
||(0.5)||F. Stalin's first wife, noted for her icy personality.
|(66.5)||A. Stalin exterminated over 3 times as many Poles as Hitler did, even though the eastern zone held only half the population of the western zone.
||(2)||B. Millions of Poles fled to the Soviet zone to escape even worse conditions inflicted by the Nazis.
||(4)||C. Approximately equal numbers of Poles died in both zones, although the Nazi kill ratio was greater.
||(16)||D. Tens of thousands of Polish intellectuals, officers, and other community leaders were executed by a special unified task force of the German and Russian secret police.
||(6.25)||E. B and C.
||(5.25)||F. A, B, and C.
|(72.5)||A. The Soviet sphere initially included eastern Poland, all three Baltic states, Finland, and part of Romania.|
|(3.25)||B. Germany "swapped" Lithuania for part of Poland.|
|(1.25)||C. Hitler and Stalin exchanged political prisoners to secure release of jailed comrades.|
|(2)||D. Stalin had annexed Finland by 1941.|
|(2.75)||E. 2-4% of the population of the Baltic states was deported to Siberia.|
|(18.25)||F. B and E.|
|(53)||A. Showed that Stalin's Great Terror had successfully eliminated most potential collaborators.|
|(6.5)||B. Convinced Stalin to immediately purge the Red Army, including the famed Marshall Tukhachevsky.|
|(2.25)||C. Convinced Stalin to temporarily dissolve the collective farms and internal passport system.|
|(11.5)||D. Sparked guerrilla uprisings amongst Ukrainians and Chechens.
||(20.25)||E. Now appears to have been a pre-emptive strike against a planned Soviet invasion of the German Reich.
||(6.5)||F. Was encouraged by the ability of the Baltic states to fight the Red Army to a standstill for almost four months.
|(48.25)||A. Large numbers of Japanese POWs.|
|(7)||B. Ethnic Germans, both POWs and civilians.|
|(8.5)||C. Millions of Soviet POWs.|
|(0.75)||D. Over half the population of Georgia and Armenia.|
|(1.75)||E. About 10% of the population of the Ukraine.|
|(33.75)||F. B and C.|
|(61.25)||A. Over 10 million ethnic Germans were expelled from eastern Europe, and about 2 million perished.
||(2)||B. After the Red Army had passed through eastern Europe, there were few ethnic Germans remaining to expel.
||(5.25)||C. About 2 million ethnic Germans were expelled by the Communist-dominated governments of Poland and Czechoslovakia.
||(7.5)||D. Over half of the "expelles" were deported east to Siberia, not west to Germany.
||(2.25)||E. The United States and Britain typically ordered German refugees to return to their country of origin.
||(21.75)||F. C and D.
|(50.75)||A. Soviet troops seized much of the industry of Manchuria.|
|(3.5)||B. Stalin refused to recognize the Nationalist government of Chiang Kai Shek.|
|(6.5)||C. Large numbers of landlords and "counter-revolutionaries" were executed in territory controlled by the Chinese Communist Party.|
|(2)||D. Mao's forces conquered Tibet and sent over 1 million Tibetans to slave labor camps.|
|(23)||E. A and C.
||(14.25)||F. A, B, and D.
|(61.5)||A. Dzerzhinski and Trotsky.|
|(6)||B. Yagoda and Tukhachevsky.|
|(5)||C. Kamenev and Zinoviev.|
|(6)||D. Kirov and Bukharin.|
|(3.5)||E. Kirov and Yagoda.|
|(18)||F. Yagoda and Yezhov.|
|(54.5)||A. Stalin tried to veto Mao's effort to form a coalition government with Chiang's forces.|
|(0.5)||B. Soviet troops occupied Tibet during the 1930's.|
|(2.75)||C. Mao disapproved of the show trials of Zinoviev and Kamenev.|
|(3)||D. Stalin vetoed a joint Soviet-Chinese invasion of Japan.|
|(18.75)||E. Stalin doubted Mao's chances for success, and therefore gave him little assistance.
||(20.5)||F. All of the above.
|(55.75)||A. Permitted joint membership in the Chinese Communist Party.|
|(7)||B. Accepted several prominent Soviet advisors.|
|(3.5)||C. Sent Chiang to Moscow to work out a deal for military aid.|
|(2.5)||D. Had its army's officer corp trained by Soviet experts on Whampoa Island.|
|(1.25)||E. Appointed Mao Zedong as second in command of its Propaganda Ministry.|
|(30)||F. All of the above.|
|(53.5)||A. Economic advisors.|
|(2)||B. Assistance in setting up a "Chinese Gulag."|
|(3)||C. Large grants and no-interest loans for purchase of technical equipment.|
|(2)||D. Nuclear weapons.|
|(29.25)||E. A and B.
||(10.25)||F. A, C, and D.
|(54.5)||A. Had an annual death rate in excess of Stalin's Gulag.|
|(8.25)||B. Had over 10,000,000 inmates.
||(2)||C. Had little economic function.
||(1.5)||D. Consisted mainly of Chinese POWs from the Korean War.
||(30.25)||E. A and B.
||(3.5)||F. C and D.
|(57)||A. Land Reform, the Great Leap Forward, and the Sufan Purge.|
|(2.5)||B. The Resist-US-Aid-Korea campaign, the Great Leap Forward, and the Let a Hundred Flowers Bloom campaign.|
|(10.75)||C. Land Reform, "suppression of counter-revolutionaries," and Resist-US-Aid-Korea.
||(1.75)||D. Collectivization, the Great Leap Forward, and the Gang of Four trial.
||(19.25)||E. Collectivization, the Great Leap Forward, and the Cultural Revolution.
||(8.75)||F. Land Reform, the Great Leap Forward, and the Let a Hundred Flowers Bloom campaign.
|(51.75)||A. Land Reform.|
|(6.75)||B. Farm collectivization.|
|(19.5)||C. The Great Leap Forward.
||(20.5)||D. The Cultural Revolution.
||(1.25)||E. The Lin Biao purge.
||(0.25)||F. The Gang of Four trial.
|(54)||A. Took back the land given to the peasants in the Land Reform campaign.|
|(4.25)||B. Collectivized agricultural and purged millions of "kulaks," or wealthy peasants.|
|(3.75)||C. Consolidated collective farms, and introduced common barracks and kitchens.|
|(4)||D. Required villages to set up makeshift steel mills fed with scrap metal.|
|(10.5)||E. C and D.
||(23.5)||F. A, B, C, and D.
|(52.75)||A. Move to the city.|
|(0)||B. Choose their occupation.|
|(1.25)||C. Demand payment for their work for the commune.|
|(1)||D. Keep the house they occupied.|
|(2)||E. Keep their own tools.|
|(43)||F. None of the above.|
|(87.25)||A. Strongly and increasingly negative, leading him to announce that the Soviet Union was ruled by revisionists who had restored capitalism.
||(4.75)||B. Mixed, since the Chinese Communists had been treated so poorly by Stalin.
||(2.5)||C. Mixed, because Khrushchev was able to win China the diplomatic recognition of the United States.
||(2)||D. Generally positive, though he defended Stalin's memory to win the support of the Indonesian Communist Party and the Khmer Rouge.
||(1)||E. Positive, although he opposed the relaxation of censorship.
||(2.5)||F. Unconditionally supportive, for Mao like most of the Chinese Communist Party was used to sudden reversals in the Party line.
|(51.25)||A. Mao seems to have struggled to prevent it.|
|(10.5)||B. It targeted intellectuals who later denounced the Cultural Revolution in their work.|
|(3.25)||C. Some of its victims ultimately regained power.|
|(0.5)||D. It provoked border clashes with India.|
|(31)||E. B and C.
||(3.5)||F. A, B, and D.
|(71.75)||A. The post-war expulsions of ethnic Germans from Poland, Czechoslovakia, and other countries.
||(6.5)||B. Deportation of Poles to Siberia.
||(9.25)||C. The 1956 invasion of Hungary and subsequent deportations.
||(1.75)||D. The 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia.
||(5.5)||E. Tito's "anti-Comintern" persecutions.
||(5.25)||F. Executions of persons attempting to escape from East Germany.
|(3.75)||B. Kim Il-sung.|
|(12)||C. Pol Pot.
||(0.75)||D. Ho Chi Minh.
||(11.5)||E. A and C.
||(14.75)||F. C and D.
|(52.75)||A. Was unable to maintain its hold on power without the continuing presence of Soviet occupation troops.|
|(0.75)||B. Tried to moderate the abuses of Stalin's "personality cult."|
|(5)||C. At one point "rented" slave laborers to the Soviets for use in Siberia.
||(4)||D. Officially registered about 50% of the population as a "hostile class."
||(7.75)||E. A and C.
||(29.75)||F. C and D.
|(54)||A. Worked as a Comintern agent in China during the 1920's.|
|(0.75)||B. Waited until French withdrawal to execute nationalists and purge the Communist Party of "Trotskyists."|
|(3.25)||C. Killed several hundred thousand Vietnamese landlords and their families during the 1950's.|
|(4)||D. Set up "re-education camps" and "special economic zones" in 1975 to punish his opponents in South Vietnam.|
|(10.75)||E. A and C.
||(27.25)||F. A, B, C, and D.
|(62.25)||A. Over 95% were Vietnamese.|
|(6.25)||B. Many were "boat people," or refugees who were forced to flee Vietnam on unseaworthy boats to avoid execution or slave labor camps.
||(1.5)||C. Few were killed in "re-education camps," which were atypically mild for a Communist regime.
||(1.25)||D. Almost all were exterminated during wartime.
||(18.75)||E. A and B.
||(10)||F. A, B, and D.
|(54.5)||A. Forcing the entire urban population into forced agricultural collectives, where they worked under conditions of extreme hardship.|
|(1)||B. Exterminating ethnic Chinese, Vietnamese, and other minorities.|
|(0.5)||C. Executing Cambodians unable to speak French.|
|(0.75)||D. Imposing Buddhism on Cambodia's Catholic and Muslim minorities.|
|(35.75)||E. A and B.
||(7.5)||F. A, B, and D.
|(52)||A. Was a moderate socialist who ended large-scale killing in Cambodia.|
|(11.5)||B. Worked closely with Vietnamese forces as they murdered several hundred thousand additional Cambodians.|
|(2)||C. Largely abolished Cambodia's slave labor camps.|
|(3.25)||D. Had about 5% the annual murder rate of Pol Pot's regime.|
|(6)||E. A, B, and C.|
|(25.25)||F. B and D.|
Return to Bryan Caplan's Homepage